Menu
GeneBe

rs117115407

Variant summary

Our verdict is Likely pathogenic. Variant got 7 ACMG points: 12P and 5B. PM1PM5PP5_Very_StrongBP4BS2

The NM_004004(GJB2):c.109G>A(p.Val37Ile) variant causes a missense change. The variant allele was found at a frequency of 0.004 in 152178 control chromosomes in the gnomAD Genomes database, including 18 homozygotes. In-silico tool predicts a benign outcome for this variant. Variant has been reported in ClinVar as Pathogenic (β˜…β˜…β˜…). Another variant affecting the same amino acid position, but resulting in a different missense (i.e. V37A) has been classified as Likely pathogenic.

Frequency

Genomes: 𝑓 0.0040 ( 18 hom., cov: 33)
Exomes 𝑓: 0.0077 ( 90 hom. )

Consequence

GJB2
NM_004004 missense

Scores

2
6
9

Clinical Significance

Pathogenic reviewed by expert panel P:44U:1B:3O:1

Conservation

PhyloP100: 6.10

Links

ACMG classification

Classification made for transcript

Verdict is Likely_pathogenic. Variant got 7 ACMG points.

PM1
?
In a hotspot region, there are 11 aminoacids with missense pathogenic changes in the window of +-8 aminoacids around while only 1 benign, 4 uncertain in NM_004004
PM5
?
Other missense variant is known to change same aminoacid residue: Variant chr13-20189472-A-G is described in ClinVar as [Likely_pathogenic]. Clinvar id is 449490. Status of the report is reviewed_by_expert_panel, 3 stars.
PP5
?
Variant 13:20189473-C>T is Pathogenic according to our data. Variant chr13-20189473-C-T is described in ClinVar as [Pathogenic]. Clinvar id is 17023. Status of the report is reviewed_by_expert_panel, 3 stars. Variant chr13-20189473-C-T is described in Lovd as [Likely_pathogenic]. Variant chr13-20189473-C-T is described in Lovd as [Pathogenic]. Variant chr13-20189473-C-T is described in Lovd as [Pathogenic]. Variant chr13-20189473-C-T is described in Lovd as [Likely_benign].
BP4
?
Computational evidence support a benign effect (MetaRNN=0.009643406).. Strength limited to SUPPORTING due to the PP5.
BS2
?
High Homozygotes in GnomAd at 18 AD,AR,Digenic gene

Transcripts

RefSeq

Gene Transcript HGVSc HGVSp Effect #exon/exons MANE UniProt
GJB2NM_004004.6 linkuse as main transcriptc.109G>A p.Val37Ile missense_variant 2/2 ENST00000382848.5
GJB2XM_011535049.3 linkuse as main transcriptc.109G>A p.Val37Ile missense_variant 2/2

Ensembl

Gene Transcript HGVSc HGVSp Effect #exon/exons TSL MANE Appris UniProt
GJB2ENST00000382848.5 linkuse as main transcriptc.109G>A p.Val37Ile missense_variant 2/21 NM_004004.6 P1
GJB2ENST00000382844.2 linkuse as main transcriptc.109G>A p.Val37Ile missense_variant 1/1 P1

Frequencies

GnomAD3 genomes
AF:
0.00400
AC:
609
AN:
152178
Hom.:
18
Cov.:
33
show subpopulations
Gnomad AFR
AF:
0.000893
Gnomad AMI
AF:
0.00
Gnomad AMR
AF:
0.00334
Gnomad ASJ
AF:
0.00749
Gnomad EAS
AF:
0.0705
Gnomad SAS
AF:
0.00
Gnomad FIN
AF:
0.00160
Gnomad MID
AF:
0.0127
Gnomad NFE
AF:
0.00126
Gnomad OTH
AF:
0.0110
GnomAD3 exomes
AF:
0.00772
AC:
1936
AN:
250766
Hom.:
90
AF XY:
0.00681
AC XY:
924
AN XY:
135584
show subpopulations
Gnomad AFR exome
AF:
0.000861
Gnomad AMR exome
AF:
0.00263
Gnomad ASJ exome
AF:
0.00806
Gnomad EAS exome
AF:
0.0827
Gnomad SAS exome
AF:
0.000392
Gnomad FIN exome
AF:
0.00180
Gnomad NFE exome
AF:
0.00133
Gnomad OTH exome
AF:
0.00441
GnomAD4 exome
AF:
0.00237
AC:
3462
AN:
1461390
Hom.:
83
AF XY:
0.00222
AC XY:
1616
AN XY:
726914
show subpopulations
Gnomad4 AFR exome
AF:
0.000538
Gnomad4 AMR exome
AF:
0.00268
Gnomad4 ASJ exome
AF:
0.00774
Gnomad4 EAS exome
AF:
0.0415
Gnomad4 SAS exome
AF:
0.000162
Gnomad4 FIN exome
AF:
0.00167
Gnomad4 NFE exome
AF:
0.000858
Gnomad4 OTH exome
AF:
0.00679
Alfa
AF:
0.00366
Hom.:
20
Bravo
AF:
0.00451
TwinsUK
AF:
0.000270
AC:
1
ALSPAC
AF:
0.00104
AC:
4
ESP6500AA
AF:
0.000227
AC:
1
ESP6500EA
AF:
0.00186
AC:
16
ExAC
AF:
0.00658
AC:
799
Asia WGS
AF:
0.0200
AC:
69
AN:
3478
EpiCase
AF:
0.00131
EpiControl
AF:
0.00113

ClinVar

Significance: Pathogenic
Submissions summary: Pathogenic:44Uncertain:1Benign:3Other:1
Revision: reviewed by expert panel
LINK: link

Submissions by phenotype

Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 1A Pathogenic:19Uncertain:1Other:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingMolecular Genetics, Royal Melbourne HospitalApr 22, 2022This sequence change is predicted to replace valine with isoleucine at codon 371 of the GJB2 protein, p.(Val37Ile). The valine residue is highly conserved (100 vertebrates, UCSC), and located in the connexin domain. There is a small physicochemical difference between valine and isoleucine. The variant is present in a large population cohort at a frequency of 0.8% (rs72474224, 2,132/282,164 alleles, 99 homozygotes in gnomAD v2.1), with an East Asian population frequency of 8.3% (1,665/19,952 alleles, 96 homozygotes). The prevalence of the variant is affected individuals is significantly increased compared with the prevalence in controls (PMID: 31160754). The variant has been identified compound heterozygous with a second pathogenic allele in greater than a hundred individuals and homozygous in greater than a hundred individuals, typically manifesting with mild to moderate hearing loss (PMID: 31160754). The variant segregates in at least 21 affected siblings over multiple families (PMID: 31160754). Additionally, in vitro functional studies of the variant demonstrate impaired function (PMID: 12505163, 16300957, 26088551). Multiple lines of computational evidence predict a deleterious effect for the missense substitution (5/7 algorithms). Based on the classification scheme RMH ACMG Guidelines v1.2.1, this variant is classified as PATHOGENIC, with reduced penetrance . Following criteria are met: PS4, PP1_Strong, PM3, PS3_Supporting, PP3. -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingWomen's Health and Genetics/Laboratory Corporation of America, LabCorpOct 15, 2018Variant summary: GJB2 c.109G>A (p.Val37Ile) results in a conservative amino acid change located in the Connexin, N-terminal of the encoded protein sequence. Three of five in-silico tools predict a damaging effect of the variant on protein function. The variant allele was found at a frequency of 0.0074 in 280234 control chromosomes in the gnomAD database, including 91 homozygotes. This frequency is not significantly higher than expected for a pathogenic variant in GJB2 causing Autosomal Recessive Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss (0.0074 vs 0.025), allowing no conclusion about variant significance. This variant was first listed as a polymorphism by Kelley_1998 due to finding of one heterozygote of this variant in 96 control persons. However, all following studies on genotype-phenotype in patients and gene function suggest that this variant is pathogenic. In hearing loss patients with this variant, clinical severity ranges from mild to moderate. In a Chinese study (Chai_2015), the variant was strongly associated with both mild-to-moderate (p=2.01011) and severe-to-profound (p=0.001) HI, but was estimated to have a rather low penetrance (17%). Huang_2015 showed that among the 3,864 Chinese patients, 106 (2.74%) had a homozygous p.V37I variation or a compound p.V37I plus other GJB2 pathogenic mutation, a frequency that was significantly higher than that in the control group (600 individuals, 0%). Homozygotes of this variant or compound heterozygotes of this variant and a pathogenic variant in GJB2 were reported in patients with hearing loss in populations other than East Asian (Robionet_2000, Wilcox_2000, Snoeckx_2005). In vitro junctional conductance and biochemical permeability study on mutant Cx26 V37I showed the function of Cx26 V37I was significantly decreased (Bruzzone_2003 and Kim_2015). Nine clinical diagnostic laboratories have submitted clinical-significance assessments for this variant to ClinVar after 2014 without evidence for independent evaluation. Eight of these have reported a classification as pathogenic (n=7) or likely pathogenic (n =1). This is consistent with the results of the "Clingen hearing loss variant curation expert panel" that has settled upon a classification for this variant as "Pathogenic" based on compelling statistical and supporting functional evidence (personal correspondence, manuscript in preparation at this time of classification) . Based on the evidence outlined above, the variant was classified as pathogenic. -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingMyriad Genetics, Inc.Dec 20, 2019NM_004004.5(GJB2):c.109G>A(V37I) is classified as pathogenic in the context of GJB2-related DFNB1 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness and is typically associated with slowly progressive bilateral mild to moderate hearing loss. Sources cited for classification include the following: PMID 12121355, 16840571, 16300957, 17935238, 10633133 and 15479191. Classification of NM_004004.5(GJB2):c.109G>A(V37I) is based on the following criteria: This is a well-established pathogenic variant in the literature that has been observed more frequently in patients with clinical diagnoses than in healthy populations. Please note: this variant was assessed in the context of healthy population screening. -
not provided, no assertion providedliterature onlyGeneReviews-- -
Likely pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedcase-controlGenetic Testing Center for Deafness, Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Institute of Otolaryngology, Chinese PLA General HospitalFeb 26, 2019- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingVictorian Clinical Genetics Services, Murdoch Childrens Research InstituteAug 29, 2017A homozygous missense variant was identified, NM_004004.5(GJB2):c.109G>A in exon 2 of the GJB2 gene.This substitution is predicted to create a minor amino acid change from valine to a isoleucine at position 37, NP_003995.2(GJB2):p.(Val37Ile). The valine at this position has very high conservation (100 vertebrates, UCSC).In silico software predictions of the pathogenicity of this variant are conflicting (Polyphen, SIFT, CADD, Mutation Taster) and it is not situated in a specific functional domain. This variant is present in the gnomAD population database at a frequency of 0.7% (2011 in 276450, 91 homozygotes) with an increased frequency in East Asian populations at 8.2% (1546 in 18868, 88 homozygotes). It is a variant with variable penetrance and has been reported in patients with mild to moderate hearing loss, sometimes progressive (Huang, Y. et al. (2015), Chai, Y.et al. (2014), Shen, N. et al. (2017), ClinVar). Based on current information, this variant has been classified as PATHOGENIC. -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingIllumina Laboratory Services, IlluminaApr 27, 2017The GJB2 c.109G>A (p.Val37Ile) missense variant is widely reported in the literature. The variant was first identified in a compound heterozygous state with a second variant in a single individual with hearing loss (Abe et al. 2000). Pollak et al. (2007) found the variant was significantly overrepresented in individuals with hearing loss as compared to controls (5.2% compared to 0.43%) and suggested that this variant might cause a late onset, mild form of hearing loss with reduced penetrance when found in combination with other variants in the GJB2 gene. In an evaluation of over 1000 newborns, Wu et al. (2011) identified several homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for the p.Val37Ile variant, with both normal hearing and varying degrees of hearing loss. Expression studies have demonstrated that the p.Val37Ile variant results in a complete loss of homotypic gap junction channel activity (Snoeckx et al. 2005). The p.Val37Ile variant is reported at a frequency of 0.08586 in the Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, population of the 1000 Genomes Project. This frequency is high but may be consistent with the prevalence of mild hearing loss in the population. Based on the collective evidence, the p.Val37Ile variant is classified as pathogenic for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, though is associated with a mild phenotype and reduced penetrance. This variant was observed by ICSL as part of a predisposition screen in an ostensibly healthy population. -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingMGZ Medical Genetics CenterJul 04, 2022- -
Uncertain significance, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingGenomic Diagnostic Laboratory, Division of Genomic Diagnostics, Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaMay 09, 2017- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingGenome-Nilou LabJul 22, 2021- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingDASAJan 05, 2022The c.109G>A;p.(Val37Ile) missense variant has been observed in affected individual(s) and ClinVar contains an entry for this variant (Clinvar ID: 17023: PMID: 31160754; 23637863; 29926981) - PS4. Well-established in vitro or in vivo functional studies support a damaging effect on the gene or gene product (PMID: 26088551, 12505163, 16300957; 26088551; 31562289) - PS3_moderate. The variant is located in a mutational hot spot and/or critical and well-established functional domain (Connexin) - PM1. The p.(Val37Ile) was detected in trans with a pathogenic variant (PMID: 31160754; 26088551; 24654934; 23637863; 29926981) - PM3_very strong Pathogenic missense variant in this residue have been reported (Clinvar ID: 179256; 449490) - PM5. The variant co-segregated with disease in multiple affected family members (PMID: 31160754; 26088551; 23637863) - PP1_strong. Multiple lines of computational evidence support a deleterious effect on the gene or gene product - PP3. and allele frequency is greater than expected for disorder -BS1. In summary, the currently available evidence indicates that the variant is pathogenic. -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingMendelicsMay 28, 2019- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingLaboratorio de Genetica e Diagnostico Molecular, Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinJan 10, 2023ACMG classification criteria: PS4 strong, PM3 moderated, PP1 strong -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingIntegrating Genomics into Medicine, Frazer Institute, University Of QueenslandJun 02, 2023- -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedclinical testingNatera, Inc.Sep 16, 2020- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingLifecell International Pvt. Ltd-A Heterozygous Missense variant c.109G>A in Exon 2 of the GJB2 gene that results in the amino acid substitution p.Val37Ile was identified. The observed variant has a minor allele frequency of 0.00772/0.00624% in gnomAD exomes and genomes, respectively. The severity of the impact of this variant on the protein is medium, based on the effect of the protein and REVEL score . Rare Exome Variant Ensemble Learner (REVEL) is an ensembl method for predicting the pathogenicity of missense variants based on a combination of scores from 13 individual tools: MutPred, FATHMM v2.3, VEST 3.0, PolyPhen-2, SIFT, PROVEAN, MutationAssessor, MutationTaster, LRT, GERP++, SiPhy, phyloP, and phastCons. The REVEL score for an individual missense variant can range from 0 to 1, with higher scores reflecting greater likelihood that the variant is disease-causing. ClinVar has also classified this variant as Pathogenic [Variant ID : 17023]. The variant has previously been reported for deafness by Shen, Jun, et al., 2019. Experimental studies have shown that this missense change disrupts the formation of homotypic junctional channels in vitro by Chen, Ying, et al., 2016. For these reasons this variant has been classified as Pathogenic. -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedresearchDivision of Human Genetics, Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaJan 23, 2015This patient is a carrier of a heterozygous pathogenic variant in the GJB2 gene associated with autosomal recessive deafness 1A. The GJB2 variant (c.109G>A; p.V37I) identified in this patient is a missense variant reported to be a common pathogenic variant in individuals with Asian ancestry and is associated with mild to moderate, sometimes progressive hearing impairment in individuals with various ages. (Gallant et al. 2013, PMID: 23873582; Huculak et al. 2006, PMID: 17036313; Bruzzone et al. 2003, PMID: 12505163; Li et al. 2012, PMID: 22574200) -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testing3billionJan 03, 2022The variant has been reported to be in trans with a pathogenic variant as either compound heterozygous or homozygous in at least one similarly affected unrelated individual (PMID: 31160754, PM3_M). It was co-segregated with Deafness, autosomal recessive 1A in multiple affected family members with additional meioses meeting strong evidence levels (PMID: 16300957, 27308859, 26088551, 12505163, 31160754, 27623246) (PP1_S). The variant has been observed in multiple (>3) similarly affected unrelated individuals(PMID: 31160754, PS4_S). Functional studies provide moderate evidence of the variant having a damaging effect on the gene or gene product(PMID: 12505163, PS3_M). In silico tool predictions suggest damaging effect of the variant on gene or gene product (REVEL: 0.656, 3CNET: 0.929, PP3_P). A missense variant is a common mechanism associated with Deafness (PP2_P). Different missense changes at the same codon have been reported as pathogenic/likely pathogenic with strong evidence (ClinVar ID: VCV000179256,VCV000449490, PMID:15365987,17666888, PM5_M). Therefore, this variant is classified as pathogenic according to the recommendation of ACMG/AMP guideline. -
Likely pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingUCLA Clinical Genomics Center, UCLAOct 01, 2013- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingJohns Hopkins Genomics, Johns Hopkins UniversitySep 11, 2020This GJB2 variant has been vetted by the ClinGen Hearing Loss Expert Panel and is predicted to be associated with autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss that is typically mild to moderate and bilateral. GJB2 c.109G>A (rs72474224) reaches polymorphic frequency (>1%) within the East Asian subpopulation in a large population dataset6 (gnomAD: 1665/19952 alleles; 8.3%, 96 homozygotes), however, it was found to be significantly overrepresented in hearing loss patients compared to population controls. This variant was found to segregate with hearing loss in a large number of families. Functional studies suggest that GJB2 c.109G>A impacts connexin 26 function, however, this has not been confimed to reflect the biologic process in human cochlea. We consider this variant to be pathogenic. -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedliterature onlyOMIMNov 01, 2007- -
not provided Pathogenic:12
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingCeGaT Center for Human Genetics TuebingenApr 01, 2023Criteria applied: PM3:Very Strong, PP1:Strong, PM2, PM5, PS3 -
Likely pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingClinical Genetics Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska University HospitalFeb 17, 2016- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingARUP Laboratories, Molecular Genetics and Genomics, ARUP LaboratoriesNov 29, 2022The GJB2 c.109G>A; p.Val37Ile variant (rs72474224) is reported in the literature in multiple individuals affected with hearing loss (Baux 2017, Kecskemeti 2018, Posukh 2019, Putcha 2007, Zhou 2019). However, homozygosity for p.Val37Ile has been associated with normal hearing (Tang 2006) as well as with slight, mild or moderate hearing loss, primarily in individuals of Asian background (Bason 2002, Dahl 2006, Kim 2015, Kim 2013, Pollak 2007, Rabionet 2000). The p.Val37Ile variant is reported as pathogenic by several laboratories in ClinVar (Variation ID: 17023) and has been shown to disrupt protein function using a Xenopus oocyte-based gap junction formation assay (Bruzzone 2003) and a gap junction permeability assay in HEK293 cells (Kim 2015). This variant is found predominantly in the East Asian population with an allele frequency of 8.3% (1665/19952 alleles, including 96 homozygotes) in the Genome Aggregation Database. Additionally, other variants at this codon (c.110T>C; p.Val37Ala and c.109G>C; p.Val37Leu) have been reported in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (Azaiez 2004, Putcha 2007). Based on available information, this variant is considered to be mildly pathogenic. References: Azaiez H et al. GJB2: the spectrum of deafness-causing allele variants and their phenotype. Hum Mutat. 2004 24:305-311. Bason L et al. Homozygosity for the V37I Connexin 26 mutation in three unrelated children with sensorineural hearing loss. Clin Genet. 2002 61:459-464. Baux D et al. Combined genetic approaches yield a 48% diagnostic rate in a large cohort of French hearing-impaired patients. Sci Rep. 2017 7:16783. Bruzzone R et al. Loss-of-function and residual channel activity of connexin26 mutations associated with non-syndromic deafness. FEBS Lett. 2003 533:79-88. Dahl HH et al. The contribution of GJB2 mutations to slight or mild hearing loss in Australian elementary school children. J Med Genet. 2006 43:850-855. Kecskemeti N et al. Analysis of GJB2 mutations and the clinical manifestation in a large Hungarian cohort. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 275:2441-2448. Kim J et al. Non-syndromic hearing loss caused by the dominant cis mutation R75Q with the recessive mutation V37I of the GJB2 (Connexin 26) gene. Exp Mol Med. 2015 47:e169. Kim SY et al. Prevalence of p.V37I variant of GJB2 in mild or moderate hearing loss in a pediatric population and the interpretation of its pathogenicity. PLoS One. 2013 8:e61592. Pollak A et al. M34T and V37I mutations in GJB2 associated hearing impairment: evidence for pathogenicity and reduced penetrance. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 143A:2534-2543. Posukh OL et al. Unique Mutational Spectrum of the GJB2 Gene and its Pathogenic Contribution to Deafness in Tuvinians (Southern Siberia, Russia): A High Prevalence of Rare Variant c.516G>C (p.Trp172Cys). Genes (Basel). 2019 10. Putcha GV et al. A multicenter study of the frequency and distribution of GJB2 and GJB6 mutations in a large North American cohort. Genet Med. 2007 9:413-426. Rabionet R et al. Molecular basis of childhood deafness resulting from mutations in the GJB2 (connexin 26) gene. Hum Genet. 2000 106:40-44. Tang HY et al. DNA sequence analysis of GJB2, encoding connexin 26: observations from a population of hearing impaired cases and variable carrier rates, complex genotypes, and ethnic stratification of alleles among controls. Am J Med Genet A. 2006 140:2401-2415. Zhou Y et al. Mutation analysis of common deafness genes among 1,201 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss in Shanxi Province. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019 7:e537. -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedclinical testingClinical Genetics DNA and cytogenetics Diagnostics Lab, Erasmus MC, Erasmus Medical Center-- -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedclinical testingDiagnostic Laboratory, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen-- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingEurofins Ntd Llc (ga)Aug 17, 2016- -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedclinical testingGenome Diagnostics Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center-- -
Pathogenic, no assertion criteria providedclinical testingJoint Genome Diagnostic Labs from Nijmegen and Maastricht, Radboudumc and MUMC+-- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingGeneDxAug 18, 2021Classified as pathogenic by the ClinGen Hearing Loss Expert Panel, and noted to show variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance (SCV000927014.1; Landrum et al., 2016; Shen et al., 2019); This variant is associated with the following publications: (PMID: 16380907, 17041943, 23873582, 27535533, 15365987, 17666888, 24077912, 31160754, 26582918, 31078570, 33095980, 32067424, 33096615, 30896630, 32386258, 31980526, 31827275, 31541171, 31914302, 30146550, 30344259, 31180159, 30733538, 31370293, 31195736, 15070423, 28489599, 29287868, 29921236, 16952406, 26119842, 26990548, 28786104, 28901477, 28012523, 25388846, 26104599, 27308839, 26896187, 27153395, 26061099, 26885124, 19043807, 27792752, 27623246, 22567861, 16840571, 26088551, 19586875, 23637863, 22574200, 24945352, 19707039, 16300957, 24212883, 22106692, 24158611, 22613756, 10830906, 12792423, 22995991, 22975760, 12505163, 24654934, 15479191, 17935238, 17036313, 25262649, 9529365, 25087612, 24645897, 23638949, 30473554, 30609409, 30693673, 30094485, 12121355, 10633133) -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingPerkinElmer GenomicsNov 04, 2022- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingAthena Diagnostics IncApr 22, 2022This variant is one of the most common variants associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss and is reported to have reduced penetrance in some families (PMID: 31160754, 30311386, 28489599). Therefore, the apparently high frequency of this variant in the general population is consistent with pathogenicity (Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD), Cambridge, MA (URL: http://gnomad.broadinstitute.org)). This variant has been reported in individuals with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness. Heterozygous individuals with hearing loss have also been reported. Assessment of experimental evidence suggests this variant results in abnormal protein function. Experimental studies demonstrate that this variant impairs homotypic junctional channel formation (PMID: 12505163, 16300957). -
Pathogenic, low penetrance, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingInvitaeNov 04, 2022This sequence change replaces valine, which is neutral and non-polar, with isoleucine, which is neutral and non-polar, at codon 37 of the GJB2 protein (p.Val37Ile). This variant is present in population databases (rs72474224, gnomAD 8%), and has an allele count higher than expected for a pathogenic variant. This variant has been reported in the literature in a large meta-analysis involving several thousand cases and controls (PMID: 28489599). This variant has been reported frequently in individuals affected with mild to moderate deafness particularly among populations in eastern Asia (PMID: 23637863, 26885124, 26061099, 17036313, 16952406, 21488715). It has been shown to segregate with autosomal recessive deafness in families (PMID: 28489599, 24945352, 26088551). Although this variant is more common in the population than expected for a pathogenic variant, the penetrance of this variant is estimated to be less than 20% of other disease-causing variants in GJB2 (PMID: 17935238, 24654934). ClinVar contains an entry for this variant (Variation ID: 17023). Advanced modeling of protein sequence and biophysical properties (such as structural, functional, and spatial information, amino acid conservation, physicochemical variation, residue mobility, and thermodynamic stability) has been performed at Invitae for this missense variant, however the output from this modeling did not meet the statistical confidence thresholds required to predict the impact of this variant on GJB2 protein function. Experimental studies have shown that this missense change disrupts the formation of homotypic junctional channels in vitro (PMID: 12505163). Furthermore in vivo knock-in and knock-out mouse models recapitulate the deafness phenotype observed in humans (PMID: 27623246). In summary, this variant is reported to cause sensorineural deafness. However, as this variant is associated with a lower penetrance than other pathogenic alleles in the GJB2 gene, it has been classified as Pathogenic (low penetrance). -
Hearing impairment Pathogenic:3
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingDepartment of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery, Cochlear Implant CenterApr 12, 2021PS1_Very strong, PM3_Supporting, PM5_Moderate, PP3_Supporting -
Likely pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingCentre for Mendelian Genomics, University Medical Centre LjubljanaMay 21, 2014- -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingGenetic Services Laboratory, University of ChicagoFeb 08, 2013- -
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 3A Pathogenic:1Benign:2
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingBaylor GeneticsOct 17, 2021- -
Benign, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingIllumina Laboratory Services, IlluminaApr 27, 2017This variant was observed as part of a predisposition screen in an ostensibly healthy population. A literature search was performed for the gene, cDNA change, and amino acid change (where applicable). No publications were found based on this search. Allele frequency data from public databases was too high to be consistent with this variant causing disease. Therefore, this variant is classified as benign. -
Likely benign, criteria provided, single submittercase-controlGenetic Testing Center for Deafness, Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Institute of Otolaryngology, Chinese PLA General Hospital-- -
Nonsyndromic genetic hearing loss Pathogenic:2
Pathogenic, reviewed by expert panelcurationClinGen Hearing Loss Variant Curation Expert PanelJun 24, 2019The filtering allele frequency (the lower threshold of the 95% CI of 143/1558, including 8 homozygous observations) of the c.109G>A (p.Val37Ile) variant in the GJB2 gene is 7.9% for East Asian genomes in gnomAD.This is a high enough frequency that, in the absence of conflicting data, might warrant a benign classification based on the thresholds defined by the ClinGen Hearing Loss Expert Panel for autosomal recessive hearing loss variants (BA1). However, based on the evidence outlined below, the ClinGen Hearing Loss Expert Panel believes that the evidence for the pathogenicity of this variant for nonsyndromic hearing loss outweighs its high allele frequency in population databases. Therefore, the BA1 code will not contribute to the overall classification. The homozygous genotype and compound heterozygous genotype with another variant in GJB2 have shown to be statistically enriched in patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss compared to individuals representative of the general population in gnomAD and/or those who underwent carrier screening at Counsyl. (PS4; PMID: 31160754). This study also reported the variant in 139 homozygous affected probands, 17 affected probands with the p.Met34Thr variant in trans, 131 affected probands with a variant asserted to be P/LP in ClinVar, and 78 affected probands with a premature GJB2 termination codon in trans. However, because the variant is also very frequent in the general population, this criteria has been applied at the strength of Moderate. (PM3; PMID: 31160754). The p.Val37Ile variant in GJB2 has been reported to segregate with hearing loss in at least 21 family members (PP1_Strong; PMID: 31160754). Although homozygous or compound heterozygous observations have been identified in individuals with normal hearing, it has been suggested that individuals with the p.Val37Ile variant lose hearing at ~1dB/year, suggesting an age-related penetrance (PMID: 27308859). Furthermore, in dye transfer and electrical coupling assays, both functional studies have shown that the variant impacts protein function (PMID: 26088551, 12505163, 16300957) and knock-in mouse model demonstrated that the p.Val37Ile variant leads to the phenotype. However, because the codon for p.Val37 in mouse (GTG) was different from that in human (GTT), c.109G>A in mouse would translate into p.Val37Met, and the dye transfer and coupling assays have limited validation and correlation with pathogenicity, neither was not counted as functional evidence. (PMID: 27623246). Of note, the severity of hearing loss is known to be mild on average and there have been multiple accounts of incomplete penetrance of the variant in families/individuals with p.Val37Ile in a biallelic genotype. In summary, this variant meets criteria to be classified as pathogenic for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic genetic hearing loss based on the ACMG/AMP criteria applied, as specified by the Hearing Loss Expert Panel: PS4, PP1_Strong, PM3. -
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingINGEBI, INGEBI / CONICETAug 31, 2020Based on ACMG/AMP guidelines and Hearing Loss Expert Panel specific criteria: PS4, PP1_Strong, PM3 -
Inborn genetic diseases Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingAmbry GeneticsFeb 10, 2020The c.109G>A (p.V37I) alteration is located in coding exon 1 of the GJB2 gene. This alteration results from a G to A substitution at nucleotide position 109, causing the valine (V) at amino acid position 37 to be replaced by an isoleucine (I). update for allelic disease - AD is too common Based on data from gnomAD, the A allele has an overall frequency of 0.756% (2132/282164) total alleles studied. The highest observed frequency was 8.345% (1665/19952) of East Asian alleles. This alteration has been more commonly reported in individuals of Asian ancestry (both affected and controls) (Huculak, 2006; Tang, 2006; Li, 2012). Although rare, homozygous and compound heterozygous observations have been identified in individuals with normal hearing; however presentation is typically associated with childhood onset bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (Shen, 2019; Tang, 2006). A more recent study has reported the p.V37I variant as pathogenic with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance with progressive hearing loss over time when detected in homozygous or compound heterozygous forms (Chen, 2020). This variant has been detected as a homozygous finding in multiple families with sensorineural hearing loss (Ambry internal data). This amino acid position is highly conserved in available vertebrate species. Functional studies demonstrate an inability to induce formation of homotypic gap-junction channels, leading to a complete loss of channel activity (Bruzzone, 2003). However, large cohort studies have reported that hearing loss is typically in the mild to moderate range suggesting that the phenotypic presentation may not reflect the functional data (Snoeckx, 2005; Huculak, 2006). The in silico prediction for this alteration is inconclusive. Based on the available evidence, this alteration is classified as pathogenic. -
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 1A;C2675235:Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 1B Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingBaylor Genetics-- -
GJB2-Related Disorders Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingRady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego-This variant has been previously reported as homozygous and compound heterozygous change in patients with deafness (PMID: 31160754, 9529365, 10982180, 12121355, 16380907, 16840571, 17036313, 17041943, 17935238). Functional studies have shown a damaging effect of the variant on intercellular biochemical permeability and conductance (PMID: 12505163). This variant has been classified as Pathogenic by ClinGen Expert Panel (PMID: 31160754; ClinVar). The c.109G>A (p.Val37Ile) variant is present in the heterozygous state in the gnomAD population database in 2132/282164 individuals and homozygous state in 99 individuals, with a total allele frequency of 0.7%. Based on the available evidence, the c.109G>A (p.Val37Ile) variant is classified as Pathogenic. -
Rare genetic deafness Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingLaboratory for Molecular Medicine, Mass General Brigham Personalized MedicineJan 24, 2011The p.Val37Ile variant in GJB2 is known to be pathogenic and, in homozygosity or when combined with another GJB2 variant, typically results in a mild to moderat e hearing loss (Snoeckx 2005, Huculak 2006, Pollak 2007) or in rare cases, may e ven be associated with normal hearing. ACMG/AMP Criteria applied: PS4, PP1_Stro ng, PM3_VeryStrong. -
See cases Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingLaboratorio de Genetica e Diagnostico Molecular, Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinNov 13, 2020ACMG classification criteria: PS4, PM3, PP1 -
Nonsyndromic Deafness Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingKnight Diagnostic Laboratories, Oregon Health and Sciences UniversityAug 05, 2016- -
Autosomal dominant keratitis-ichthyosis-hearing loss syndrome;C0265964:Mutilating keratoderma;C0266004:Knuckle pads, deafness AND leukonychia syndrome;C1835672:Palmoplantar keratoderma-deafness syndrome;C1844678:X-linked mixed hearing loss with perilymphatic gusher;C1865234:Ichthyosis, hystrix-like, with hearing loss;C2673759:Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 1A;C2675750:Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 3A Pathogenic:1
Pathogenic, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingFulgent Genetics, Fulgent GeneticsMay 03, 2022- -
Ichthyosis, hystrix-like, with hearing loss Benign:1
Benign, criteria provided, single submitterclinical testingIllumina Laboratory Services, IlluminaApr 27, 2017This variant was observed as part of a predisposition screen in an ostensibly healthy population. A literature search was performed for the gene, cDNA change, and amino acid change (where applicable). No publications were found based on this search. Allele frequency data from public databases was too high to be consistent with this variant causing disease. Therefore, this variant is classified as benign. -

Computational scores

Source: dbNSFP v4.3

Name
Calibrated prediction
Score
Prediction
AlphaMissense
Benign
0.16
BayesDel_addAF
Benign
-0.083
T
BayesDel_noAF
Pathogenic
0.18
Cadd
Benign
22
Dann
Benign
0.87
DEOGEN2
Uncertain
0.67
D;D;D
Eigen
Uncertain
0.45
Eigen_PC
Uncertain
0.34
FATHMM_MKL
Uncertain
0.96
D
MetaRNN
Benign
0.0096
T;T;T
MetaSVM
Uncertain
0.50
D
MutationAssessor
Uncertain
2.1
M;M;M
MutationTaster
Benign
1.0
A;A
PrimateAI
Benign
0.46
T
PROVEAN
Benign
-0.82
N;N;.
REVEL
Pathogenic
0.66
Sift
Benign
0.72
T;T;.
Sift4G
Benign
0.51
T;T;.
Polyphen
1.0
D;D;D
Vest4
0.26
MVP
0.67
MPC
0.043
ClinPred
0.049
T
GERP RS
5.2
Varity_R
0.42
gMVP
0.84

Splicing

Find out detailed SpliceAI scores and Pangolin per-transcript scores at spliceailookup.broadinstitute.org

Publications

LitVar

Below is the list of publications found by LitVar. It may be empty.

Other links and lift over

dbSNP: rs72474224; hg19: chr13-20763612;